A glossary of financial terms found on our website.

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Source: LOIM,


A - E



Baby boomers

Generation born between 1946-1964.


Balanced (convertible bond)

A convertible that trades at a price where it is neither a pure equity substitute nor trading on its bond floor but is balanced between the two.



A market when security prices are generally rising (bull) or falling (bear).




Cap (capitalisation)

Total equity market value of company (number of outstanding shares multiplied by price per share).


Capital efficiency

A company’s level of profit generated over capital employed.


Capital structure

Proportion of net debt to equity.


Climate-aligned bonds (non-labelled)

Non ring-fenced debt funding dedicated to climate-friendly sectors, requiring deeper impact verification expertise.



A statistic that measures the degree to which two securities move in relation to each other.


Credit rating

An independent assessment of a borrower’s ability to repay its debts i.e. default risk. Standard & Poor’s, Fitch and Moody’s are the three most prominent credit rating agencies.




Debt recourse

Rights to demand payment from the general or specific assets of the debtor.


Delta (convertible bond)

A measure of the sensitivity of the convertible bond price to share price movements.



If the price of one asset class typically moves in the reverse direction to another, this can help mitigate risk on a portfolio. For example, if bond prices rise when equity prices fall, including bonds in a portfolio of equities can help to reduce the volatility in the value (i.e., risk) of that portfolio.




Emerging markets

An emerging market economy is one in which the country is becoming a developed nation and is determined through many socio-economic factors.



Environmental, Social and Governance factors in corporate behaviour that may offer investors potential long-term performance advantages.


Excess economic returns

Companies making profits that comfortably exceed their cost of capital.



F - J



Fundamental analysis

Financial analysis about a company such as assessing its sales, profitability and ability to service debt.





The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period. A PPP-based GDP measure involves converting individual countries’ GDP using the Purchasing Power Parity approach as an exchange rate. PPP is the exchange rate that allows an identical basket of goods in one country to be bought in a second country.

Green bonds (labelled)

Ring-fenced debt funding for projects with clear positive climate impact. External validation on the use of proceeds.




High conviction approach

Seeking a more concentrated portfolio of investments that a manager has high confidence will do well in the future.




Impact verification

An objective assessment to qualify a project’s green, social or sustainability impact with measurement of those results.


Investment Grade

A bond with a credit rating of at least BBB- (Fitch), Baa3 (Moody’s) or BBB- (S&P).



K - O



Liquid securities

Securities (e.g., bonds, equities) that are easy to buy (or sell) in the relevant investment market without the purchase (or sale) significantly impacting the price of the security.




Stocks valued by the markets at below (or above) what a manager deems to be the fair value of a company, based on its financial data and prospects.



Describes an investment that invests across a range of asset classes (for example, equities, bonds, commodities).




Option (Convertibles)

A convertible bond has the option to be converted into shares of the company at a ratio determined at issue.


Organic revenue growth

An increase in a company’s revenue base that is not achieved through mergers and acquisitions.



P - T




Purchasing power parity is an economic theory that compares different countries’ currencies through a “basket of goods” approach. According to this concept, two currencies are in equilibrium or at par when a basket of goods (taking into account the exchange rate) is priced the same in both countries.



Risk-based investment approach (or risk allocation) 

This means that instead of designing the Sub-Fund around a chosen split of capital (e.g., 60% of the fund’s capital to be invested in equities; 40% in bonds) the chosen split relates to how the portfolio’s overall risk is allocated rather than its capital. For example, if the manager targets 60% of portfolio risk in equities, at times when equity markets become highly volatile, the manager will need to reduce the amount of capital invested in equities so that he/she keeps the level of risk in equities at 60%. 





A condition that changes how an industry or market operates, regardless of cyclical or short-term economic trends.



U - Z



The annualised standard deviation of returns reflecting dispersion of a share price. The assumption for future share price volatility is an input for convertible valuation.





The anticipated percentage return on a bond if held to its maturity date.